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Academic OrganizationAcademic Assembly School of Science and Technology Institute of EngineeringTEL+81-26-269-5112
Education and Research OrganizationInterdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research Research Center for Aerospace SystemsFAX+81-26-269-5109
Address4-17-1,Wakasato, Nagano City,JapanWeb site



Assigned Class
Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering
Graduate School of Science and Technology
Research Group
Materials Processing and Design Engineering
Research Field
Metal making/Resorce production engineering
Academic Societies
Academic Societies
The Japan Welding Engineering Society, Surface Modification Research and Technology Committee
Japan Institute of Light Metals
Japanese Society for Engineering Education
Japan Institute of Metals
Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering
Japan Thermal Spraying Society

Committee of Academic Societies
2018- , The Japan Welding Engineering Society SurfaceModification Research and Technology Committee,The Japan Welding Engineering Society , Chairman
2017- , Japan Thermal Spray Society , President
2009- , Japan Thermal Spray Society , director
2013-2017 , Japan Thermal Spray Society , Vice President
2012-2014 , Japan Institute of Metals , editor
2012-2014 , Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering , reviser
2010-2018 , The Japan Welding Engineering Society SurfaceModification Research and Technology Committee,The Japan Welding Engineering Society , Secretary General
2010-2012 , Japan Institute of Metals , editor
2009-2011 , High Temperature Society of Japan , councilor
2009-2013 , JapanThermal Spray Society , editor-in-chief
2009-2011 , Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering
2005-2006 , Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering
2004-2011 , Japan Thermal Spray Society , councilor
2004-2010 , Surface Modification Research and Technology Committee,The Japan Welding Engineering Society , coordinator
2003-2009 , Japan Thermal Spray Society
2002-2009 , Japan Thermal Spray Society
Academic Background
Graduate School
Shinshu University , (Graduate School, Division of Engineering) , 1988

Shinshu University , (Faculty of Engineering) , 1986

Doctor of Engineering , Shinshu University
2019 , IWAKI Award (Special prize) , Achievement name:Basic research on cold spray method and development of application examples
Research Career
Research Career
2014- , Professor
1988-1993 , Toshiba Co.

Other Career


Books, Articles, etc.
Multi-dimensional Additive Manufacturing
Springer 2021
Author:Takayoshi Nakano; Fujio Tsumori, Yuichiro Koizumi; Naoyuki Nomura; Soshu Kirihara; Hirokazu Katsui; Takashi Goto: Yoshitake Masuda; Kentaro Shinoda, Jun Akedo; Kazuhiko Sakaki; Kazuhiro Ogawa; Yasutak
Keywords:Additive Manufacturing Caoting

Cold Gas Dynamic Spray
CRC Press , :95-118 2016(May 03)
Author:Roman Gr. Maev, Volf Leshchynsky, Paolo Matteazzi, Alberto Colella, Kazuhiko Sakaki, Hirotaka Fukanuma,Thomas Van Steenkiste, Keith Kowalsky, Chris Berghorn, Wolfram Scharff, Dmitry Dzhurinskiy, Sergey Titov, Victor K. Champagne, Dmitry Dzhurinskiy, Emil Strumban, Sergey Titov, Dmitry Dzhurinskiy, and Emil Strumban
Abstract:Cold Gas Dynamic Spray centers on cold gas dynamic spray (or cold spray—CS) technology, one of the most versatile thermal spray coating methods in materials engineering, and effectively describes and analyzes the main trends and developments behind the spray (coating) techniques. The book combines theory with practice to enable the reader to deeper understand the CS coatings as well as their structures and properties, and describes the state of the art in CS technology with an emphasis on all major components of the cold spray process.This book begins with an introduction to CS spray and goes on to thoroughly explain the process. It describes the different powder synthesis methods and equipment currently used, and defines the CS coating microstructure, characterization methods, and properties of CS coatings. The authors present a comprehensive approach that highlights grit blasting and cold spraying as well as the hybrid CS-sintering technology that offers integrity of microstructure, compositional homogeneity, and mechanical property levels equal to (and frequently better than) those of the wrought counterpart.
Keywords:Cold Gas Dynamic Spray, cold spray, Coating, applications

The influence of nozzle design in the cold spray process
Woodhead Publishing Limited. , The cold spray materials deposition process. Part2 COLD SPRAY PROCESS PARAMETERS , :117-126 2007(Sep.)
Author:Victor K Champagne, A Papyrin, M F Smith, J Karthikeyan, K SAKAKI, et al.
Abstract:The cold spray process produces dense, low oxide coatings which can be used in such diverse applications as corrosion control and metals repair. It has emerged as an important alternative to thermal spray coating techniques in certain areas. This pioneering book reviews both the fundamentals of the process and how it can best be applied in practice.
The first part of the book discusses the development of the process together with its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with thermal spray coating techniques. Part 2 reviews key process parameters such as powders, nozzle design, particle temperature and velocity, and particle/substrate interaction. It also describes portable and stationary coldspray systems. The final part of the book discusses how the cold spray process can be applied in such areas as improved wear, corrosion protection, electromagnetic interference shielding and repair of damaged components.
The cold spray materials deposition process will be a standard reference onthis important process and its industrial applications.
Keywords:Al2O3-40 mass% TiO2; cold spray; HVOF; nozzle design; numerical simulation

Reaction layer at the interface between aluminium particles and a glass substrate formed by cold spray
Author:Song, Minghui; Araki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Sakaki, Kazuhiko;

Fabrication of Aluminum Coating with Dispersed Nanoscale Quasicrystalline Particles by Cold Spray
Author:Hishida, Motoki; Fujita, Masashi; Sakaki, Kazuhiko;

Inorganic antimicrobial coating for titanium alloy and its effect on bacteria
Journal of Orthopaedic Science,14(2):204-209 2009(Mar.)
Author:Katsuya Tamai, Kenji Kawate, Ikuo Kawahara, Yoshinori Takakura and Kazuhiko Sakaki
Keywords:Inorganic antimicrobial coating,Cold Spray,titanium alloy,bacteria

Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced magnesium alloy composites
Scripta Metallurgica,58(4):267-270 2008
Author:Y. Shimizu, S. Miki, T. Soga,I. Itoh, H. Todoroki, T. Hosono, K. Sakaki, T. Hayashi, Y.A. Kim, M. Endo, S. Morimoto and A. Koide
Abstract:This study demonstrates the ability to fabricate lightweight, ductile but mechanically strong magnesium alloy (AZ91D) composites by introducing a small number of high crystalline multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It is demonstrated that 1%of relatively short and straight carbon nanotubes distributed homogeneously on the outer surface of magnesium powders act as an effective reinforcing filler to prevent deformation, thereby contributing to the enhanced tensile strength of magnesium alloy composites (e.g., from 315 to 388 MPa).

Effect of the gun nozzle geometry, increase in the entrance convergent section length and powder injection position on cold sprayed titanium coatings
Materials Science Forum,534(-536):413-416 2007
Author:Kazuhiko Sakaki, Shuhei Shinkai, Nobuharu Ebara,Yasuo Shimizu
Keywords:cold spray, nozzle geometry, titanium

Technique for cladding of poison sheets for Cd-poisoned moderator
JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS,343(1-3):145-153 2005
Author:Kawai, M; Kobayashi, Y; Miyake, Y; Inoue, H; Harada, M;Teshigawara, M; Saito, S; Kikuchi, K; Chiba, A; Sakaki, K; Yamamura, T; Kurishita, H; Konashi, K; Nakajima, K

日本溶射協会誌 溶射,41(2):52-57 2004(Apr.)
Author:清水保雄,榊 和彦,三羽功治,甘利宏之,中山義啓,遠藤守信
Keywords:VGCF, polyethlene resin matrix comosite, HVOF spraying

Thermoelectric Properties of FeSi Thjermoelectric Produced by utlizing the MA/SPS Process
Journal of the Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy,50(11):931-936 2003(Nov.)

MA/SPS プロセスによるFeSi系熱電素子の作製におけるβ化熱処理の効果
日本金属学会誌,67(10):555-561 2003(Oct.)
Author:山本潤一,清水保雄,大谷 草,塩崎圭輔,榊 和彦

The effects of heat treatment on the beta-FeSi2 transformation in the fabrication of FeSi thermoelectric element utilizing the MA/SPS process
Author:Yamamoto, J; Shimizu, Y; Ohtani, H; Shiozaki, K; Sakaki, K

Effectof the increase in the entrance convergent section length of the gun nozzle on the high-velocity oxygen fuel and cold spray process
Author:Sakaki, K; Shimizu, Y
Abstract:Nozzle geometry, which influences combustion gas dynamics and, therefore, sprayed particle behavior, is one of the most important parameters in the high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The nozzle geometry is also important in the cold spray method. The gas flows in the entrance convergent section of the nozzle exhibit a relatively higher temperature and are subsonic; thus, this region is most suitable for heating spray particles. In this study, numerical simulation and experiments investigated the effect of the entrance geometry of the gun nozzle on the HVOF process. The process changes inside the nozzle, as obtained by numerical simulation studies, were related to the coating properties. An Al2O3-40 mass% TiO2 powder was used for the experimental studies. The change in entrance convergent section length (rather than barrel part length or total length) of the gun nozzle had a significant effect on the deposition efficiency, microstructure, and hardness. The deposition efficiency and hardnessincreased as this geometry increased. On the other hand, the calculated and measured particle velocity showed a slight decrease. This effect on the HVOF process will also be applied to the nozzle design for the cold spray method.

Improvement in Wire Arc Spray by Super Sonic Cold Gas Jet
Thermal Spray 2001- Proc. of the Internatuonal Thermal Spray Conference -,:441-445 2001(May)
Author:K. Sakaki, Y. Shimizu,

先端加工学会誌,20(1):42-49 2001

Effect of increase in entrance convergent section length of gun nozzle on HVOF thermal spray process and its application to nozzle design for cold gas-dynamic spray method
1st International Thermal Spray Thermal Spray– Surface engineering via applied research,,:551-559 2000
Author:K. Sakaki, Y. Shimizu

Effect ofSpraying Parameters on the Microstructure of Alimina Coating Sprayed by High Velocity Oxyfuel(HVOF) Method.
Jornal of Japan Thermal Spraying Society,36(1):1-11 1999(Mar.)
Author:A.Devesenapathi, Y.SHIMIZU, K.SAKAKI, T.MINAMIDA

日本金属学会誌,63(2):269-276 1999
Author:榊 和彦,清水保雄,合田祥昭

高速フレーム溶射における溶射粒子の飛行挙動に及ぼすガンノズル形状の影響 ~数値シミュレーションと実験による解析~
日本溶射協会誌 溶射,35(3):195-205 1998(Sep.)
Author:榊 和彦,清水保雄,合田祥昭,南田徹哉

Effects of Nozzle Geometry on High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spraying Process
Thermal Spray -Proc. of the 15th Internatuonal Thermal Spray Conference-,:445-451 1998(May)
Author:K.Sakaki, Y.Shimizu, Y.Gouda, A.Devasenapathi

高速フレーム溶射における燃料流量とガンノズルの出口部末広化の関係 -燃料流量の低減の検討-
高温学会誌,24:215-221 1998

日本金属学会誌,57(11):1333-1338 1993
Author:土屋和博,清水保雄,榊 和彦,佐藤元太郎

Influence of Nozzle Expansion Ratio of Circular and Rectangular Cross-Section Nozzle on Velocity and Temperature of Copper Particle with HP Cold Spraying by Computational Fluid Dynamics and experimental analysis
ASM/TSS, DVS, iiW , International Thermal Spray Conference , :279-284 2019(May 26)
Author:Kazuhiko SAKAKI, Kiyotaka IIJIMA, Tomoki TSUBATA
Abstract:In cold spray, the nozzle shape is an important factor. Among nozzle shapes, the nozzle expansion ratio, which is defined as the area of the exit divided by the area of the throat, to gas pressure is an important parameter. In this paper, the influence of the circular and the rectangular cross-section nozzle are taken into account, considering the CFD and experiments. The influence of the nozzle expansion ratio of the circular and the rectangular cross-section nozzle on the velocity and temperature of gas and particles in high-pressure cold spraying using CFD code such as ANSYS Fluent are reported.Experiments were conducted with copper particles (10μm) at pressures from 1.5 to 4 MPa. For a gas pressure of 3 MPa for copper particles, circular and rectangular cross section nozzles have a maximum particle collision velocity with an expansion ratio of about 11 to 12. The deposition efficiency of copper powder also increased.
Keywords:COLD SPRAY,CROSS SECTIONAL SHAPE of NOZZLE Nozzle Geometry, Nozzle Expansion Ratio、CFD

Spray Pattern of Copper Coatings with the Optimized Rectangular Cross-Section Nozzle by the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in High-pressure Cold Spraying
Asian Thermal Spray Socieety , Asian Thermal Spray Conference 2018(Nov.)
Author:Kazuhiko SAKAKI, Shinji ARAI
Abstract:The spray pattern of copper coatings obtained by experiment with the rectangular cross-sectionnozzle optimized by CFD analysis in high-pressure cold spraying are reported. The optimizedrectangular nozzle provides a more uniform spray pattern profiles of copper coatings. Relativelyfiner powder (Cu-10μm) tended to deposit on the end of the coating.
Keywords:Cold Spraying, Rectangular Cross-section Nozzle, Spray Pattern, CFD

Spray pattern and microstructure of copper coatings with the optimized rectangular cross-section nozzle by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in high-pressure cold spraying.
the International Thermal Spray Conference ITSC2017 , :520-524 2017(May)
Author:Kazuhiko SAKAKI, Shinji ARAI
Keywords:cold spraying,Rectangular Nozzles,Effect of Expansion Ratio

Influence of Position of Spray Pattern on Calculated Results of Gas Stream and Copper Particle with the Rectangular Cross-Section Nozzle of High-Pressure Cold Spraying
the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers-MMD , Proc.Asia-Pacific Conference on Fracture and Strength (APCFS) 2016 , :405-406 2016(Sep.)
Author:Kazuhiko Sakaki, Shinji Arai, Tatuyuki Tagami

Effect of multi-pass coatings on surface structure of cold sprayed Si coatings
the International thermal spray conference ITSC2016 , :946-949 2016(May)
Author:J. Nakamura, H. Saito, K, Fujita, K, Sakaki

Influence of Length of Divergent and Parallel Section of the Rectangular Cross-Section Nozzle on Behavior of Particles of Copper in High-Pressure Cold Spray
the International thermal spray conference ITSC2016 , :1035-1039 2016(May)
Author:Kazuhiko SAKAKI, Shinji ARAI ,Tatuyuki TAGAMI

Effect of Expansion Ratio of Rectangular Nozzles on Spray Pattern of Copper Coatings in Cold Spraying
ASM/TSS, DVS, iiW , the International Thermal Spray Conference ITSC2015 2015(May)
Author:Kazuhiko Sakaki,Takuma Akashi,Takashi Hosono
Abstract:In the cold spray process, cross-sectional shape of the nozzle has a significant effect on spray pattern of coatings. There is a rectangular and a circular cross-sectional shapes on the cold spray nozzle. It has been reported that spray pattern of the rectangular spray nozzle is wider than that of the circular spray nozzle. Accordingly, rectangular nozzle is better efficiency than circular nozzle at spray a constant width. The goal of this investigation is to establish a design for the cold spray gun nozzle in order to gain a flatter the spray pattern of coatings.In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiments investigated the effect of expansion ratio of rectangular nozzle on spray pattern of copper coatings in cold spraying. We made converging-diverging rectangular nozzle with expansion ratio of 6.1, 11.2 and 15.0, to compare with the circular nozzle.
Keywords:Cold Spraying,Rectangular Nozzles,Effect of Expansion Ratio

JSME, ASME , the JSME/ASME 2014 International Conference on Materials and Processing , ICMP2014-4961:ICMP2014-4961 2014(Jun. 11)
Author:Kazuhiko Sakaki, Takuma Akashi, Takashi Hosono

Attempt to improve characteristics of cold sprayed metallic coatings by Ultrasonic Impact Treatment and Friction Stir Processing
ASM, DVS, iiw , the International Thermal Spray Conference ITSC2014 2014(May)
Author:Kazuhiko Sakaki, Kei Kondou, Koji Terasaka, Kazuhiro Nakata, Takuya Tsumura
Keywords:cold sprayed metallic coatings,Ultrasonic Impact Treatment,Friction Stir Processing

Effect of Spray Angle on Adhesion Strength of Aluminum Coating and Particle Impact Behavior on Glass and Ceramic Substrate
5th Tsukuba International Coating Symposium (TICS2012) , :5-6 2012(Nov. 29)
Author:Kazuhiko Sakaki, Toshihiro Kubo, Kei Kondo, Takuya Idemoto

Improvement of mechanical properties of WC – cermet coatings prepared by high velocity air fuel spraying
日本機械学会,米国機械学会 材料加工部門 , JSME/ASME 2011 International Conference on Materials and Processing , :ICMP2011-51035 2011(May)
Author:K. Sakaki,K. Takizawa, H. Miyajima, J. Kitamura, K. Satou
Keywords:WC – cermet coatings,high velocity air fuel spraying(HVAF)

Investigation of aluminum Coating with Dispersed Nanoscale Quasicrystalline Particles Produced by Cold Spray
軽金属学会 , the 12 International Conference on Aluminum Alloys , :1845-1850 2010
Author:M. Fujita, M. Hishida, K. Sakaki, M. Sakaguchi, M. Okazaki
Keywords:aluminum coating,dispersed nanoscale quasicrystalline particles,cold spray

Effect of the increase in the entrance convergent section length and geometry of thegun nozzle on properties of cold sprayed copper and titanium coatings
ASM/TSS,DVS,iiw , CD-ROM of Proc. ofthe International Thermal Spray Conference(ITSC)2008 2008

Influence of The Expansion Ratio of The Gun Nozzle and Gas Pressure on Properties of Cold Sprayed Copper Coatings
日本機械学会,米国機械学会 材料加工部門 , International Conference on Material and Processing (ICM&P) 2008 2008
Author:K. Sakaki, K. Takeda, K. Takada, T. Hosono, Y. Shimizu
Keywords:Expansion Ratio of The Gun Nozzle, Gas Pressure, Cold Spray, Copper Coatings

Cold spray process - Overview and application trends
Author:Sakaki, K

Themes for Joint Research
Cold Spray process/fandamental tecqunology/application development
Research Grants
Joint Research
Cold Spray技術の研究

Grants‐in‐aid for Scientific Research(Research Representative)
2015 - 2017 , コールドスプレー法における金属薄膜作製のための技術開発 , 基盤研究(C)


2015 , Manufacturing TechnologyⅠ
2015 , Experiments in Mechanical Systems Engineering
2015 , Practical Training on Machining in Mechanical Engineering
2015 , Seminar Ⅰ in Environment Protection in the Community
2015 , Advanced Design of Mechanical Engineering
2015 , Advanced Manufacturing Process